Disclaimer

This website was prepared in a non official capacity. The opinions expressed on this website are the authors' own and do not reflect the views of the Army, the Department of Defense, or the United States government.  This site is not connected with any government agency. The information contained on this site is either open source, the author's opinion, or total B.S.  We are not doctors and will never pretend to be -- any attempt to improve your fitness based on the information contained within this site should first be approved by a medical professional.

SPECIFICITY

  • Continue to progressively overload the targeted muscle group or energy system, and you will continue to improve... for a little while.

  • Fail to properly modify your volume, intensity, and/or rest, and you will likely experience the dreaded plateau

CONTEXT

The physical training you conduct should have a specific application to your job-related tasks (e.g. warrior tasks and battle drills).  Moreover, if the test for which you are training requires producing power,  training for muscular endurance likely won't do you any good.

SIGNIFICANCE

Adaptation is specific -- you will get better at exactly what you practice.  Running slow for long distances does not make you faster!  If you want your training to carry over to your sport, your training must "look" enough like your sport to benefit you on the field.

SCIENTIFIC BASIS

S.A.I.D Principle 

Specific Adaptation to Imposed Demands

Adaptations that occur as a result of training directly correlate to the specific stimuli

IMPLICATIONS

MDL.jpg

3 Rep Max Deadlift

Tests:

Muscular Strength

- Legs and Shoulders

- Trunk

- Grip

By design the ACFT tests you in the following components of fitness:

  • Muscular Strength

  • Muscular Endurance

  • Aerobic Endurance

  • Anaerobic Endurance

Other Training Considerations:

  • Agility

  • Balance

  • Flexibility

  • Coordination

  • Posture

  • Speed

  • Power

  • Stability

Muscular Strength

the capacity of a muscle or muscle group to exert a force against a maximal resistance

muscular endurance

the capacity of a muscle or muscle group  to exert a sub-maximal force repeatedly, or to hold a static contraction over a period of time

aerobic endurance

the ability to sustain low-intensity activity of long duration

anaerobic endurance

the ability to sustain high intensity activity of short duration

 

Training for Muscular Strength

There exists an important relationship between Load and Volume:

  •  the heavier the load, the lower the number of repetitions that can be performed

  • since strength is defined as the capacity to exert force against a maximal resistance (the heaviest load possible), increases in strength are best exhibited by demonstrating an increased capacity to lift progressively heavier loads

  • lifting loads less than 80% of your 1RM does not increase your capacity to lift progressively heavier loads -- therefore, your efforts to get stronger should focus on loads greater than 80% of your 1RM

  • and since heavier loads reduce the number of repetitions we can perform, strength training is usually conducted with 8 repetitions or less, across 2-5 sets of work

1RM = 1 Repetition Maximum

load = amount of weight used

intensity - describes the load as a % of a RM

The "sweet spot" for training to improve muscular strength:

2-5 sets

< 8 repetitions

> 80% 1RM

 

Training for Muscular Endurance

Muscular Endurance: the capacity of a muscle/muscle group to exert a force repeatedly or to hold a fixed or static contraction over a period of time

  • since heavier loads reduce the number of repetitions we can perform, muscular endurance training is usually conducted with lighter weights and a higher volume

  • while strength is a key component to moving large loads, that's simply not enough -- we've also got to move those loads long distances

  • this is why in addition to training for strength, you may not neglect the need to move progressively heavier loads for longer periods of time

  • isometric holds can and should be a key component of training for muscular endurance

  • which type of training should come first?  That all depends on your needs analysis, but in traditional periodization we learn high volume first and then move towards the strength domain

Volume - the total number of repetitions performed (sets x reps)

Volume-load = amount of weight used x total reps

Isometric - holding a static contraction (think planks)

The "sweet spot" for training to improve muscular endurance:

3-6 sets

10 - 20 repetitions

50 - 75% 1RM

 

Training for Aerobic Endurance

Training for Aerobic Endurance (e.g. the 2 mile run) is all about energy system development.  Bioenergetics -- the physiological processes that result in the creation of ATP  -- dictate how fast our body can provide the energy we need for a given activity

  • the energy we need to conduct long, slow exercise activities is produced through a process called aerobic respiration (hence the term aerobic exercise).

  • this process occurs in the cell's mitochondria, requires oxygen, and generates a large amount of ATP, but it takes a relatively long time to supply the energy we need

  • this is "ok" if our energy demands are not as immediate -- as is the case with long, slow endurance work

  • as soon as our demand for energy out-paces our ability to supply it aerobically, our method of supplying ATP shifts to anaerobic means

  • one of the keys to increasing our ability to run faster for longer periods of time is increasing the threshold at which this transition from aerobic to anaerobic respiration occurs

  • in this program, training in a truly aerobic domain will primarily occur when moving under load during "strongman" training and during recovery runs and bikes 

ATP - Adenosine Tri-Phosphate - the energy "currency" of the body

Anaerobic Threshold (AT) - the exertion level at which anaerobic metabolism supplies the majority of the energy needs as a result of increased intensity

RPE - Rating of Perceived Exertion - a scale of effort from 6 - 20

Aerobic work is typically characterized by:

continuous work > 4 minutes

HR < 75% of MHR

9 -14 RPE

 

Training for Anaerobic Endurance

Short-term, high intensity training like sprinting predominantly relies on the metabolic pathway (energy system) known as Anaerobic Glycolysis.

  • we cannot rely on the aerobic system to supply the majority of the energy requirements for this high intensity work because it simply can't supply ATP fast enough

  • instead, the glycolytic pathway, which relies on carbohydrates in the blood (glucose) and carbohydrates stored in the muscle (glycogen), provides a short-term source of energy very quickly

  • while the energy this system provides is more readily available, we also pay a price for our immediate energy needs - lactic acid

  • Lactate (lactic acid) is a by-product of anaerobic glycolysis, and our ability to clear the associated hydrogen ions (that burn you feel) limit the capacity of this energy system

  • HIIT serves to help us increase our lactate threshold, ultimately contributing to increased anaerobic and aerobic capacity

HIIT - High Intensity Interval Training

Anaerobic Threshold (AT) - the exertion level at which anaerobic metabolism supplies the majority of the energy needs as a result of increased intensity

Anaerobic work is typically characterized by:

short, intense work < 90 seconds

> 75 % Max Effort

14 - 20 RPE

MASTER THE PRINCIPLES, CRUSH THE ACFT

PRECISION
PROGRESSION
INDIVIDUALISM
SPECIFICITY
OVERLOAD
RECOVERY

BETTER EVERYDAY